Category Archives: Programming

Moving beyond the basics with software design patterns

As a PHP developer, mastering object-oriented programming can feel like a never-ending challenge. You start by familiarizing yourself with core object-oriented features like:

You start writing object-oriented code and playing with those features. This can leave you with some mixed feelings. You don’t feel that using those features are worth the trouble. You might just drop everything all together and go back to what you were doing before. That’d be a mistake.

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Organizing your files in an object-oriented WordPress plugin

So you’ve made the plunge to the world of PHP object-oriented programming. You want to use that knowledge to build a plugin or convert your plugin to using objects. That’s great!

We’re going to talk about one of the first hurdles you might face when trying to work with PHP objects. That’s organizing your files. It’s an important topic with no general consensus in the WordPress community.

So why is file organization important? Well, let’s look at the code samples on this site to give you an idea. In general, each code sample tends to have a couple of classes and/or interfaces. They’re also small and only cover one specific WordPress problem.

But once you start building a real plugin, you’ll have to solve a lot of problems. That means that you’ll end up with a lot more classes. It can leave you feeling frustrated and looking for answers to questions like:

  • What do you do with them?
  • How do you structure my files and folders to accommodate them?
  • How do you load all the files containing them?

These are all questions that you’ll get an answer to in this article. So let’s get to it!

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Polymorphism and WordPress: Interfaces

Let’s talk about interfaces. As a WordPress developer, how can they be useful to you and your projects? It’s going to be a tough sell because WordPress core doesn’t use them and we’ll see why this is an issue a bit later. That said, you’ll still find this article useful if you’re looking to:

  • Learn more about PHP and not just WordPress
  • Build strong and extensible PHP code
  • Reduce bugs in your open source plugins
  • Use open source PHP frameworks

Like the article on abstract classes, you’ll get a detailed example to help you with the topic. It’ll explain how interfaces work and how you can use them. You’ll also get a good idea of the design decisions that warrant the use of an interface.

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Polymorphism and WordPress: Abstract classes

When we covered inheritance, there were some questions about interfaces and abstract classes.

  • What can you use them for?
  • What are the advantages?
  • When should you use them?

These are all great questions that are worth exploring. As the title suggests, “Polymorphism” is the object-oriented feature that helps answer these questions. It’s not an easy feature to grasp.

That’s why most of the article will be about an in-depth example. You’ll see the thought process involved with using it. This will help you understand it better so you can apply it to your own projects.

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Using inheritance with WordPress

As a WordPress developer, you’re always looking for ways to better reuse your code between projects. Your time is valuable and you don’t want to reinvent the wheel each time you start a new project.

Object-oriented programming can help you with that. In a previous post, I covered why you should learn it. Now it’s time to take things further by going over the main feature for code reuse. You’ve probably heard about it before. It’s called “inheritance“.

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The first thing you should learn from object-oriented programming

You’ve decided to learn object-oriented programming, but you don’t know where to start. Object-oriented programming has so many concepts and features. The whole thing can feel overwhelming at times. Let’s help you get started on the right foot.

What’s a great place to start? With the feature that you’ll associate the most with object-oriented programming. It’s called encapsulation. Most modern programming languages support encapsulation using classes.

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Why object-oriented programming is your next step as a WordPress developer

You’re a WordPress developer. You might have a few plugins under your belt or a theme or two. You build WordPress sites for clients or just for yourself. You’ve heard of object-oriented programming, but, each time you look into it, it makes no sense!

You tell yourself object-oriented programming isn’t useful or worth the trouble. The goal of this article is to focus on explaining this value to you. At the end of this article, you should have a clear understanding of why you should learn it.

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Single responsibility principle, WordPress and You

For WordPress developers, it can be hard to improve your PHP skills. You lack the resources or tutorials to drive home these concepts. This happened just a few weeks ago when Nathaniel asked for help with his Stack Overflow question.

He was looking for help applying the single responsibility principle with WordPress. I sent him a bunch of replies but closed off saying I needed to write a post about it. This article is a detailed explanation of my thoughts following that conversation.

As WordPress developer, you might have started working with or looking into object-oriented programming. Maybe you even heard of something called SOLID.

As a whole, SOLID can be an intimidating topic. But the single responsibility principle is just one part of it (it’s the ‘S’ in SOLID). That makes it a more manageable topic to discuss and help you with.

At the end of this article, you should have a better understanding of it. You can also use the provided code samples in your own plugins and themes.

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A plugin for a rainy day

Moving ahead from our last post, I want to present the beta version of the Helthe WordPress Error Monitoring plugin (available here). The overall goal of the plugin is to offer relevant error monitoring for your production WordPress site.

A debugging tale

When debugging WordPress (or any other programming problem for that matter), what do you usually do? You start using your badass Google-fu to find a solution and, when that fails, you post on support forums, WordPress Answers (Stack Overflow) or another medium, but I am getting ahead of myself.

Before that you need to know what to look for and that’s usually where the problem lies especially with WordPress. Unless you’re dealing with a fatal error (White Screen of Death), WordPress is generally pretty silent about issues. This is by design.

Great experience for the users. Hell for supporting them.

This is plugin is a serious attempt at helping you with that. I have already done a good effort to capture a lot of the known errors (and some new ones as well), but having you use it will help me find additional ways to help you (and find bugs) when you need it the most.

What are you getting?

I don’t plan on doing a feature by feature explanation, but I wanted to highlight a few things that I hope you will find useful.

Leveraging existing plugins

The first thing I did is consolidate some of the good stuff from the Core Control plugin and Deprecated Log Notices which do not seem to be actively worked on anymore. Those were the two plugins I knew that helped for specific problems (let me know if you know others!).

With this, you’ll know if you’re using deprecated functions or calling functions wrong. However, the more interesting element is tracking errors from the HTTP API. Without diving to deep into it, the HTTP API is used by WordPress to handle communications with other web services. This includes wp-cron and errors with the API can be one of the reasons why your cron tasks (like schedule posts) do not run.

Termination Errors

This has the potential to be very useful. Have you ever had AJAX errors with WordPress? Those can be really annoying to solve since you can’t see the output. Well now, anytime WordPress terminates with an error, it will get logged in your error log. I haven’t seen anything like this before so I am hoping that this turns out to be very useful for you.

Image Editor Errors

Another common problem you can encounter is the image editor not working because you’re missing libraries for example. This is a scenario where you really won’t know unless you spend quite a bit of time poking around.

Admin Bar Support

Wondering if there were errors when your page rendered, you’ll be able to see all the errors that were logged by the plugin in the admin bar. This is just for site administrators.

And more!

There’s quite a few more things already under the hood and, as far as I know, there’s nothing another error plugin does that isn’t covered with this current beta version. I am not satisfied yet though. The same way you think of Akismet as your default spam solution, I  want this to be a must-have for any serious WordPress professional.

I can’t do that without your help and feedback. Try it out and create issues whenever you have a production (or even development) problem that wasn’t caught by the plugin and caused you serious pain.

This is available to you for free

You won’t need to sign up for anything and you will get all the errors logged in the PHP error log. I think for this to be truly great for the community, all the features need to be available to everyone.

Where do Helthe fit in this?

Right now the plugin only writes to the PHP error log. When Helthe gets closer to the beta phase, there will be an option to add an API key that will let errors be sent to the service. The purpose of Helthe is to make error monitoring and management more convenient for you so if you’re ok with looking through your error logs then you won’t need anything else to be functional.

As always, feel free to leave a comment below or discuss on Hacker News.

P.S. If you’d like to keep up to date with my progress with Helthe, leave your email below!

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Diving into WordPress errors

I would say that the most uncertain aspect of Helthe has been if it could do an amazing job monitoring WordPress errors. In the past, finding out what a problem was in WordPress has been a very frustrating (even table-flipping) experience for myself and a lot of people I have asked about it. So I set out to test and work on this critical assumption.

Can we have good error monitoring in WordPress? Is it already available? Here are my findings after 2 weeks.

What can you get right now?

I started looking through the plugin directory, did some some searching on Google and asked around. The result was some old diagnostic plugins (like Core Control) that do not seem to be supported anymore, but I am pretty sure they still work though.

You also had some error handling libraries (like the one for raygun.io) that would do something with PHP errors/exceptions (like email them to you or send them to their API).

A good start, but hardly what I was looking for. For example, no plugins could tell you if you had no PHP image editing libraries on your server. WordPress won’t give you an error, but you won’t be able to edit images without it. Often requiring you to debug for a few hours locating the issue.

When WordPress has an error, does it make a sound?

WordPress has a very unique philosophy around errors. This isn’t documented anywhere per say, but, if you are interested in reading about it, Nacin and Otto discuss their view on it in this WordPress hacker thread. At the end of the day, everything is a WP_Error and errors are coded defensively.

You will find that no exception are used in the code and that WordPress either has a fatal error (known as the white screen of death) or will fail silently without you being aware of it. The only errors that generally surface are the ones that will impact the user (Access Denied, Could not delete tag, etc.).

Because WordPress uses WP_Errors for everything, you are left to filter which, as a developer, are relevant to you. I asked around if there was documented hooks or filters where important errors might show up. The answer was that no work had been done to document them so I went deep into the core code to check it out.

Diving for answers

I had a tough time getting that answer. There’s no documentation available so I had to go through the code to find all the error handling code myself. If you’re interested in the process, I looked at every is_wp_error call in WordPress (there’s over 300 in 3.6) and then looked at all the functions and objects that were tied to that error check. That’s a lot of core code, but I was able to get a solid grasp of what was going on because of it.

After that I looked at all the wp_die calls (450+ of them in 3.6), this is a bit more tedious, but the idea was to look at what WordPress considered important enough to terminate itself. Often, they were normal reasons, but the goal was to find the error terminations and their cause.

Finally, I did take a look for new WP_Errors, but they ended not as useful as I had hoped. Critical objects do not always handle errors simply returning a new WP_Error. So while I started with this, it ended up the less useful research path.

What does WordPress do with errors?

As Nacin accurately described, there’s roughly 3 informal classification for WP_Errors. After spending a good two weeks looking at all the error code, I would generally agree with the classification given. He doesn’t really explain what WordPress does with each type so I’ll go through them and explain since this is not documented anywhere.

User Notices

These are specific errors that will surface to the user. They are generally the only WP_Errors that make it to a filter. Their purpose is to alert the user and provide feedback when an error relevant to the user occurs. Plugins can hook in and add their own error message as well. However, these errors are superficial and don’t really alert you to problems going on inside WordPress.

Warnings

These are the devious ones. Warnings are errors that do not directly affect the user experience, but prevent non-critical WordPress features from working. Quick examples are failed HTTP requests with the HTTP API and unable to select an image editor, but there’s plenty of others.

The big issue with these errors is that they very rarely make it to a filter. WordPress will simply return from the function and deal with those internally or dismiss them. As a developer or support individual, they are usually the ones you are the most interested in so it’s a real shame you cannot hook into them.

Failures

Failures are errors that need to be dealt with immediate or WordPress will not function. Most of those are found around the update code (plugins, theme and core), you’ll find some around the database code as well. They will either require user intervention or some form of rollback.

So what about the filters and hooks?

Yeah! What about those!? Like I mentioned previously, I wanted to document useful hooks where errors might show up.

I had initially thought I could use the ‘all’ hook (This hook runs for every hook/filter) to check every hook/filter for WP_Errors. You can’t use it that way. Any function using the ‘all’ hook runs before any other hook/filter function regardless of the given priority so if a plugin returns a WP_Error, you would not know. Bummer.

Besides that, there aren’t a lot of hooks or filters that are relevant if you are looking to check for application errors. Like I mentioned previously, WordPress tends to deal with them internally before they even hit a filter.

Where does this leave us?

As a developer, I hope that you have found the information useful so far. It was incredibly useful for me in getting a better sense of what was going internally in WordPress.

So in the next post, I’ll be introducing the Helthe plugin that I have been working on for monitoring WordPress errors and how I dealt with the limitations I have been discussing today.

Feel free to leave a comment below or discuss on Hacker News.

P.S. If you’d like to keep up to date with my progress with Helthe, leave your email below!

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