A concept that comes up a lot while doing object-oriented design is coupling. We use it to describe how connected the different parts of your code are to one another. But, even explained like that, the concept of coupling can still be a hard to grasp.
On top of that, we often pair it with another concept called cohesion. We use cohesion to describe how well the different parts of your code fit together. This tells us whether everything was well-designed or not.
In fact, this is why coupling and cohesion are so important. There’s a strong relationship between them and the quality of your code. Code that doesn’t have any major coupling or cohesion problem is more often of higher quality. It’s more maintainable, reusable and less prone to problems.
That’s why you want to keep these two concepts in the back of your mind when programming. But that’s easier said than done when these concepts aren’t well understood. That’s why we’ll demystify them today.
Continue reading Coupling and cohesion in WordPress and beyond
Well, we’re almost done with 2016! Around the same time last year, I did my first year in review. (In reality, it was more of a 2012-2015 review!) I want to continue this trend by doing a review of this year.
It’s a way for me to be transparent about what I’m doing. It’s not something that I’m good at. (The most common question I get is still “What do I do?”) It also lets me document what I’m doing to see if I’m making progress towards where I wanted to go the year before.
This means that this article is more for me than for you. That said, I think there’s a lot of value in reading how people are navigating the complex game of life. (Not that game of life!) That’s why I like reading them!
Continue reading 2016 in review: #Carl2016
This site has a lot of object-oriented programming articles. Most of them focus on solving WordPress problems using object-oriented programming. This is great when you’re comfortable with object-oriented programming.
But most WordPress developers aren’t that comfortable with it. (You’d think there’d be a book on that or something.) It’s one thing to read about basic concepts like encapsulation and inheritance. It’s another to put them in practice. There are a lot of obstacles that you have to overcome.
One of these obstacles is the proper use of the static keyword. Static methods are a great object-oriented tool to use. But, like all good things, we can also abuse it if we’re not careful.
This happens a lot more in the WordPress development world than anywhere else. And there are good reasons for that. We’ll look at why that is and what you can do about it.
Continue reading How to use the static keyword with WordPress
No set of control structures is more pervasive in programming than
else. With a few exceptions, you’ll use at least one per function or method that you write. There’s just no way around it.
But conditionals (that’s what we call these control structures) fit in the “easy to learn, hard to master” category. In fact, they’re so easy to use that you can develop some bad habits around them. (This is also a problem with loops.) This can lead to code that’s complex and hard to read or even test.
That said, it’s possible to develop good programming habits with conditionals. This is what this article will try to help you with. We’ll go over some programming techniques that can help make conditionals more manageable.
Continue reading Mastering the use of PHP conditionals
Being a plugin developer isn’t easy. You have to get your plugin to work with WordPress. But more often than not, you also need it to interact with other plugins.
This interaction can take various forms. For example, you might need to modify another plugin’s behaviour using the plugin API. Or you might want to help customers migrate away from another plugin (or product) to yours.
This second scenario is the one that we’re going to look at in this article. It’s a good opportunity to introduce a new software design pattern. We call it the strategy pattern.
Continue reading Importing data into WordPress using the strategy pattern
Alright, it’s time to continue our journey building our awesome
WP_Query_Builder class! So far, we’ve only designed it to build simple WordPress queries. But not all WordPress queries are simple or easy to model using just a cascading method.
It’s even possible that you’ve run into the limits of the
WP_Query_Builder already. The class that we created then wasn’t a complete solution. It had some serious limitations if you were a
WP_Query expert. You couldn’t use it to perform complex WordPress queries.
What do we mean by complex WordPress queries? We mean queries that use a complex
WP_Query query parameters. At the moment, there are three of them:
So, for this article, we’re going to back to our
WP_Query_Builder class. We’ll add support for one of these complex
WP_Query query parameters. We won’t go over all three due to how complex they are. But you can apply what you’ve seen for this one query parameter to design a fluent interface for the other two.
Continue reading Designing a class to create complex WordPress queries
I gave a talk at WordCamp Los Angeles 2016 on PHP array functions. This is the companion article that I wrote for it. If you’re just looking for the slides, click here.
As a WordPress or PHP developer, you use arrays all the time. They’re an essential (if not necessary) part of your developer toolbox. But that doesn’t mean that you’re using them to their full potential.
That’s because, when we work with arrays, we also tend to work with loops as well. And loops are seductive. They let you traverse an array and perform any operation that you wish on each array element.
That said, it’s easy to overuse loops. When that happens, your code becomes hard to read and to test. That’s because loops, while easy to use, can also make your code much more complex.
But, lucky for us, PHP has a wealth of array functions. They’re used by PHP experts to make their life easier and replace a lot of instances where you’d use a loop. This, in turn, makes their code simpler, easier to read and more testable.
Continue reading How to use PHP array functions instead of loops
In a previous article, we looked at how you could create a class to manage WordPress posts. We ended creating a class who’s job it was to interact with the WordPress database. And it did that quite well!
As part of its job, our class also had to be able to query the WordPress database. To do that, we made it easier to reuse code around the
WP_Query class. We achieved that by creating methods that used predefined query arguments.
But have you ever looked at the codex page for
WP_Query? Holy Moley, there are a lot of query parameters in there! It’s pretty intimidating and not always easy to use in practice.
That’s the problem that we’re going to look at in this article. We’ll design a class to simplify how we build
WP_Query objects. It’ll handle all the complexity around
WP_Query query parameters for you. The result should be an easier way for you for you to create WordPress queries.
Continue reading Designing a class to build simple WordPress queries
This site has grown a lot in the last year or so. We’ve spent a lot of time going over object-oriented solutions to WordPress problems. So much so that, we have a small library’s worth of material that you can refer to.
With any type of growth, criticism will arise. This is a good thing. I’m a big proponent of “Strong opinions, weakly held“. But this can’t happen without discussion and debate. In the long run, I always feel it leads to a better outcome. (Well, that’s as long you don’t get stuck just debating!)
Recently, there was a debate on the nature of the solutions that you’ll see on this site. They’re overengineered. I think this is a valid criticism and I wanted to share some of my thoughts on the whole thing.
Continue reading Thoughts on teaching object-oriented programming with WordPress and overengineering
Learning object-oriented programming with WordPress is a lot like embarking on an epic journey. You’ll experience some lows, some highs and some downright frustrating moments. But it’s all part of the learning process.
And, so far, we’ve done quite a bit of progress on our journey. We’ve looked at various WordPress problems. And we then solved them using a class or combination of classes.
We call this process “object-oriented design“. It’s been the focus of a lot of the articles on this site. Because of that, there’s a good chance that you’ve begun using it in your own projects. (And if you haven’t, you should try it!)
When that happens, you’ll start to notice that your project has a lot of classes. This tends to become a problem for a lot of developers. They wonder, “How do I assemble all these classes together!?” It’s not unusual for them to revert back to the standard WordPress way of doing things when that happens.
This is the problem that we’re going to explore in this article. We’ll look at how you can solve it using a dedicated class for it. To do this, we’ll start thinking about the job of the main plugin class.
Continue reading Designing a class to assemble plugin classes